Introduction to Computer Graphics

Introduction to Computer graphics

This article is about Introduction to Computer Graphics. In this we will  provides a foundational overview of the field of computer graphics, covering its principles, applications, and fundamental concepts. The aim of introduction is to give you a broad understanding of what computer graphics is and importance of computer graphics.

Definition of Computer Graphics: Computer graphics refers to the study and the technology used to create, manipulate, and display visual images and animations on a computer screen.

Introduction to Computer graphics

Computer Graphics includes several things

  • The representation or manipulation of images or the data in a graphical ways.
  • Various technology is required for the manipulation and creation of data and images.
  • Digital synthesis and its manipulation.

History of computer graphics (CG)

The history of computer graphics is an interesting journey that start over several decades. Here is a light overview of the key development in the history of computer graphics. Ivan Sutherland Sketchpad (1963) is regarded as one of the earlier computer graphics systems.  It allowed users to create, draw and manipulate objects using a light pen.

First Graphics Displays (1960s):

  • Very Early graphics displays, such as the TX-2 at MIT and the PDP-1, featured rudimentary vector displays and served as precursors to modern computer graphics.

Development of Graphical User Interfaces (1970s-1980s):

  • Xerox PARC played an important role in developing the concept of the GUI that later influenced the design of systems like the Apple Macintosh.
  • The Xerox Alto (1973) was one of the first computers that have features of GUI.
  • In 1970 3D computer graphics was introduced.
  • The development of rendering algorithms and techniques, including in 3D computer graphics.
  • The video game industry introduces advancements in computer graphics. Early games started like “Pong” (1972) and “Space Invaders” (1978).

Computer Graphics Standards (1980s-1990s):

  • Establishment of standards like DirectX and OpenGL  allowed software developers to create graphics applications in the verity of way. This is an advancement in the field of GUI
  • CAD software revolutionized engineering and design fields by enabling the creation of detailed 2D and 3D models, speeding up the product design and architectural planning processes.
  • During 1980 film industry began to use computer-generated imagery (CGI) in movies.
  • Later on animated films starts.
  • After that VR and AR technologies used that is new advancement in the field of GUI.

Modern Graphics Hardware (2000s-Present):

  • GPUs (Graphics processing units ) have become incredibly powerful, enabling real-time rendering of complex 3D scenes in video games and simulations.

Application of computer graphics

Computer graphic have a wide range of applications in various fields. Computer graphics applications have ability to create, manipulate, and display visual content through the computers. Here are some important applications of computer graphics are given below.

  • Entertainment

    video games are nothing with computer graphics. CG are used to create  immersive 2D and 3D environments and special effects. Animation studios like Pixar and Disney use CG to create lifelike animations.

  • Design and Art

    Graphic designers use computer graphics to design logos brochures, posters and etc. Artists use digital tools to create digital paintings. Architects use 3D modeling software for creating detailed and realistic models.

  • Science and Engineering

    The Researchers use CG to visualize complex data, such as climate simulations and medical imaging. Engineers employ CAD software to design and simulate products, buildings, and systems.

  • Use of Computer graphics in the field of Education

    Computer graphics is also using in field of education. We use computer graphics in learning, sending data from one university to an other university etc.

  • Medicine:
  • User Interfaces (UI) and User Experience (UX)
  • Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR)
  • Advertising and Marketing
  • Simulation and Training
  • Gaming and Interactive Entertainment

Computer Graphics Tutorial Index

Computer Graphics Tutorial

Graphic Systems

  • Display Processor
  • Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
  • Random Scan vs Raster Scan
  • Color CRT Monitors
  • Direct View Storage Tubes
  • Flat Panel Display

Input-Output Devices

  • Input Devices
  • Trackball
  • Light Pen
  • Image Scanner
  • Output Devices
  • Plotters

Scan Conversion a line

  • Scan Conversion Definition
  • Scan Converting a Point
  • Scan Converting a Straight Line
  • DDA Algorithm
  • Bresenham’s Line Algorithm

Scan Conversion Circle

  • Defining a Circle
  • Defining a Circle using Polynomial Method
  • Defining a Circle using Polar Coordinates Method
  • Bresenham’s Circle Algorithm
  • Midpoint Circle Algorithm

Scan Converting Ellipse

  • Scan converting a Ellipse
  • Polynomial Method
  • Trignometric Method
  • Midpoint Ellipse Algorithm
Filled Area Primitives

  • Boundary Fill Algorithm
  • Flood Fill Algorithm
  • Scan Line Polygon Fill Algorithm

2D Transformations

  • Introduction of Transformation
  • Translation
  • Scaling
  • Rotation
  • Reflection
  • Shearing
  • Matrix Representation
  • Homogeneous Coordinates
  • Composite Transformation
  • Pivot Point Rotation


  • Window
  • Window to Viewport Co-ordinate Transformation
  • Zooming
  • Panning

Clipping Techniques

  • Clipping
  • Point Clipping
  • Line Clipping
  • Midpoint Subdivision Algorithm
  • Text Clipping
  • Polygon
  • Sutherland-Hodgeman Polygon Clipping
  • Weiler-Atherton Polygon Clipping

Pointing & Positioning

  • Pointing & Positioning Techniques
  • Elastic or Rubber Band Techniques
  • Dragging

  • Introduction of Shading
  • Constant Intensity Shading
  • Gouraud shading
  • Phong Shading


  • Animation
  • Application Areas of Animation
  • Animation Functions

3D Computer Graphics

  • Three Dimensional Graphics
  • Three Dimensional Transformations
  • Scaling
  • Rotation
  • Rotation about Arbitrary Axis
  • Inverse Transformations
  • Reflection
  • Shearing

Hidden Surfaces

  • Hidden Surface Removal
  • Back Face Removal Algorithm
  • Z-Buffer Algorithm
  • Painter’s Algorithm
  • Scan Line Algorithm
  • Subdivision Algorithm
  • 3D Modelling System


  • Projection
  • Perspective Projection
  • Parallel Projection


  • Computer Graphics Programs

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