IC and type of IC

IC and type of IC

IC and type of IC An integrated circuit is one in which all components, including transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and connecting wires, are manufactured and interconnected completely on a silicon semiconductor chip or wafer. Once processed, the chip is enclosed in a plastic or ceramic capsule that contains the connection pins to the external circuits. The smallest digital chips contain several simple components, such as gates, inverters, and flip-tops. The largest ones contain complete circuits and systems such as counters, memories, microprocessors, etc. Most digital integrated circuits come in dip (dual in-line package) or dual-row packaging. 

The digital Integrated Circuits available are manufactured from silicon wafers. Processing silicon to obtain ICs or chips is relatively complicated. The silicon used for the manufacture of chips has a purity of around 99.9999999%. Once synthesized, silicon is melted in an inert atmosphere and crystallized in the form of cylindrical bars up to 10cm in diameter and 1m long. Each bar is cut into tablets of 0.25 to 0.50 mm thickness and the surfaces of the latter are polished until shiny. Depending on their size, several hundred identical circuits (chips) are obtained on both surfaces using a process called planar, the same process used to mass-produce transistors. 

The integrated circuits are “compressed” electronic circuits. on a chip, and is based on replacing an entire set of discrete components that perform a specific function, with a single component, prepared internally with everything necessary to reproduce exactly the same previous function. This chip contains inside and in miniature the same or even more components than the circuit described and its difference lies, apart from its small size, in that they are all enclosed in a common encapsulation and are mounted or manufactured on a support as well. common, called substrate.

Design of analog CMOS-integrated circuits

“CMOS”, which refers to complementary metal oxide semiconductors,  also called “COS-MOS,” that is, complementary symmetry metal oxide semiconductors, are used in both digital and analog applications.  Furthermore, in the use of CMOS in the analog form, we have examples such as CMOS operational amplifier integrated circuits. Instead of using signal relays, transmission gates can be used as analog multiplexers.

Here, we would refer to the single unit of the CMOS, which is the MOSFET. the MOSFET is an acronym that stands for Metal-oxide-silicon field-effect-transistor. The combination of complementary MOSFETs is known as CMOS circuits. A distinct advantage of CMOS is that it only carries flux through devices when the logic circuit toggles its logic gate. Therefore, there is the absence of related power debauchery by a factor of 10, and this is because below one of the 10 gates of a much logical circuit toggles at a given time.

Integrated circuits 3

 WHAT ARE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS MADE OF?

Integrated Circuits are made of silicon that serves as the base where transistors, diodes and resistors are manufactured. Integrated circuits contain hundreds of these components distributed in an orderly manner; This is achieved through the technique called photolithography, which allows thousands of components to be arranged on a small silicon plate.

What is an integrated circuit assembly?

An integrated circuit assembly is a single-unit electronic assembly consisting of miniaturized active and passive devices. Some of the active devices include transistors and diodes, while passive devices consist of capacitors and resistors. These devices have interconnections designed on a thin semiconductor substrate resulting in a compact chip. You will find that this chip can be very small even in the square millimeter range thanks to the tiny individual components.

There are three types of integrated circuits:

Monolithic circuit:

The word monolithic comes from Greek and means “a stone”. The word is appropriate because the components are part of a chip. The Monolithic Circuit is the most common type of integrated circuit, since since its intervention, manufacturers have been producing monolithic integrated circuits to carry out all types of functions. Commercially available types can be used as amplifiers, voltage regulators, switches, AM receivers, television circuits, and computer circuits. But they have power limiters. Since most of them are the size of a discrete small-signal transistor, they generally have a maximum power rating of less than 1W. They are made of a single crystal, usually silicon, but they also exist in germanium, gallium arsenide, silicon-germanium, etc.

Thin-film hybrid circuit:

They are very similar to monolithic circuits, but they also contain components that are difficult to manufacture with monolithic technology. Many A/D – D/A converters were manufactured in hybrid technology until advances in technology made it possible to manufacture precise resistors.

Thick layer hybrid circuit:

They are quite a departure from monolithic circuits. In fact, they usually contain monolithic circuits without a capsule (you say), transistors, diodes, etc., on a dielectric substrate, interconnected with conductive tracks. The resistors are deposited by silk-screen printing and adjusted by making laser cuts. All of this is encapsulated, both in plastic and metal capsules, depending on the power dissipation required. In many cases, the capsule is not “molded,” but simply consists of an epoxy resin that protects the circuitry. On the market there are hybrid circuits for RF modules, power supplies, automotive ignition circuits, etc.

Analog integrated circuits: They can consist of simple transistors encapsulated together, without junctions between them, to complete devices such as amplifiers, oscillators or even complete radio receivers.

Digital integrated circuits: They can range from basic logic gates to the most complicated microprocessors. These are designed and manufactured to fulfill a specific function within a system. In general, the manufacturing of integrated circuits is complex since they have a high integration of components in a very small space so that they become microscopic. However, they allow great simplifications with respect to the old circuits, in addition to faster assembly.

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