Arduino Servomotor using Potentiometer

Arduino Servomotor using Potentiometer
Arduino Servomotor using Potentiometer

You’re staring at your Arduino Servomotor using Potentiometer, thinking how to improve it. You want to make that servo dance. Potentiometers make servo control easier than you think. A resistor will soon have that motor whirling and swinging as you wish. Brace yourself—we’re going to unleash your Arduino skills. You can maximize your servomotor’s potential with a few simple components and programming. Expect smooth, dynamic control instead than monotonous, limiting motions. From wiring to uploading the sketch, this instruction covers it all. Your servo will soon move to your drum, with power at your fingertips. Let’s begin!

What You Need: Arduino, Servomotor, Potentiometer & Breadboard

This project requires several components. Potentiometer input controls the servomotor via an Arduino Uno board.

Arduino Uno

Popular circuit-controlling development board Arduino Uno. Its digital and analog pins read inputs and power outputs. The Uno sends servomotor pulses based on potentiometer position.


A precision-controlled tiny motor is a servomotor. Servos have power, ground, and signal wires. The signal wire receives Arduino pulses to position the servo. This project requires a 180-degree standard servo.


Potentiometers are variable resistors used as dials or knobs. One pin is powered, one is ground, and one emits an analog signal based on knob position. Arduino reads this signal to determine potentiometer position.


Breadboards make component connections easy without soldering. The potentiometer, Arduino, and servo will be connected to the breadboard using jumper wires. Socket rows and columns are internally connected on the breadboard.

These four components are enough to make a potentiometer-controlled servomotor circuit. The following stage covers connecting all the pieces and uploading code to the Arduino to start the project.

How Servos Work PWM modulates pulse width.
Servos need pulse width modulation to move. A servo is controlled by PWM pulses of various widths. All pulses instruct the servo where to move.

Control Signal

To maintain position, the servo expects a 20-ms pulse. If no pulse is received during this interval, the servo returns to its default position. Each pulse width represents a rotation angle. The 1.5 ms pulse may represent 0 degrees, the 1.75 ms 90 degrees, and the 2 ms 180 degrees.

How Servo Works Reads Signal

The servo’s little microprocessor reads pulse widths and moves it accordingly. Servo position is determined by a potentiometer. It then compares the pulse width to its present position and rotates clockwise or counterclockwise to meet the pulse signal.

If the servo receives a 1.75 ms pulse to move to 90 degrees but its potentiometer reading is 0 degrees, it will rotate clockwise 90 degrees to match the new position. It rotates counterclockwise to 0 degrees after receiving a 1.5 ms pulse. Thus, the Arduino can precisely position the servo by adjusting pulse widths.

Important Considerations

A few PWM servo control tips:

• To maintain position, the servo needs a 20-ms pulse. If no pulse is received, it returns to its default position.

• Each servo has pulse widths that match its motion. Check your servo’s specs for pulse width range.

• The Arduino servo library simplifies servo control. Once you specify the servo angle, the library generates the PWM signal.

• Servos need external power since they use a lot. Servos need appropriate power!

Servo control requires only power, ground, and signal wires.

Does this explain servos and Arduino PWM control? Have more questions? Let me know!

Potentiometer-Servomotor Control

Potentiometers must be wired together to control servomotors. Potentiometers are variable resistors used as voltage dials. Adjusting the dial lets more or less voltage through. The servomotor will get variable voltage signals from this.

Potentiometer Connection

One potentiometer pin should be connected to 5V power, one to ground, and the middle to Arduino analog input A0. The potentiometer divides voltage, so rotating the dial adjusts the center pin voltage. The Arduino will read this voltage as analog input.

Servomotor Connection

Next, connect the servomotor’s power (red) wire to 5V power, ground (black or brown) to ground, and signal (yellow or orange) to Arduino digital pin 9.

Uploading Code

After connecting the hardware, we must upload Arduino code to read the potentiometer and control the servomotor. Code will:

Check analog input A0 voltage.

Convert that voltage to 0–180 degrees.

Use Servo library to set servomotor position to that degree.

Keep monitoring the potentiometer and updating the servo position by looping this.

Try It Out

After uploading the code, turn the potentiometer to see the servomotor follow! The voltage maps the servo’s position, thus a little dial movement will move it little and a lot will move it totally. Congratulations, you can now easily manually position servomotors. Arduino projects can use this servo control example! Any queries? Inform me.

Example Arduino Potentiometer Servo Control Code

Arduino requires the following components to drive a potentiometer-controlled servo motor:

An Arduino board

Servo motor

A 10k potentiometer

Jumper cables

Component Connection

To connect potentiometer, servo, and Arduino:

Potentiometer: Connect one pin to 5V, one to GND, and the middle to Arduino A0.

Servo: Connect red to 5V, black or brown to GND, and yellow or white to Arduino pin 9.

The Code
Here’s potentiometer-controlled servo code:

#include <Servo.h>

Servo myServo; Servo object created int potPin = A0; = Analog pin for potentiometer connection int potVal; = Variable for reading potentiometer value

setup() { myServo.attach(9); // Connect servo to pin 9

void loop() { potVal = analogRead(potPin); potVal = map(potVal, 0, 1023, 0, 179); myServo.write(potVal); signal(servo) delay(15); wait(servo) }

This code does:

Servo object myServo

Reads potentiometer-connected A0 analog value.

Converts analog (0-1023) to servo (0-179)

Moves servo to mapped position

Delays servo movement by 15ms.

This code lets you turn the potentiometer and control the servo motor angle. Adjust map()’s ‘179’ value to fit your servo’s range of motion. Have fun experimenting!

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