Arduino Servo Motor

Arduino Servo Motor
Arduino Servo Motor

You’re new to Arduino Servo Motor and want to do more than blink LEDs. Servo motors are fun and allow precise component rotation and positioning. After learning the basics, they’re easy to connect. This beginner’s guide covers servos, materials, and simple sketches to spin and move them. You can build interactive robots and mechanisms quickly using an Arduino, servo, and wires. We’ll discuss circuit setup, power, and angle, speed, and direction code. Learn how to create a servo-powered pan/tilt camera rig, robotic arm, or other device. Build objects that move with Arduino!

What Is Servo Motor?

Rotating actuators like servo motors control angular position, velocity, and acceleration. This motor-sensor system provides position feedback. The motor is normally a DC motor and the sensor a potentiometer or encoder.

Simple but Effective

Servos are easy to operate but may control complex motion. They have controller circuitry that monitors the output shaft position and corrects for deviation to properly move and retain a specific angular position. Simply provide a PWM signal to set the position.

Ideal for Beginners

Beginners should utilize servos because they handle most control logic. Precision motion is built in, therefore no feedback controller is needed. Simply supply power, ground, and PWM. Tasks servos can perform:

Robot arm joint control

Controlling a remote car

Ornithopter wings flap

Targeting a laser or camera

Catching and throwing balls

Applications are infinite! Servos available in various sizes, voltages, and torque levels to suit your demands.

How Servos Work

Servos have power, ground, and signal wires. The power line supplies 4.8 to 6V for smaller servos and up to 12V for high-torque ones to the motor and control circuits. Ground wire completes circuit.

Signal wires carry PWM signals that tell servos where to move. The servo controller regulates motor speed and direction based on pulse width to maintain the intended position. Most servos rotate 180 degrees, therefore a 1ms pulse turns the shaft to one side, 2ms to the center, and 1.5ms to the other end.

You can precisely move the servo to any place in its rotation range by altering pulse width. A narrow margin of error is maintained by the built-in feedback controller.

How Arduino Servos Work

Servos are little motors with precise rotation. Three wires carry power, ground, and signal. Signal wires inform servos where to rotate. Servos are ideal for robots and animation because they can move precisely.

Powering the Servo

Connect your Arduino’s red wire to 5V and black wire to ground to power a servo. Connect the yellow or white signal line to any Arduino digital pin.

Controlling Servo Position

Signal wire pulses from the Arduino tell the servo where to go. Servos have a range and “neutral” position. A common hobby servo rotates 180 degrees from 0 to 180, with 90 being the neutral middle.

Use the Arduino IDE’s Servo library to position the servo. Connect the signal pin to a servo in setup(). Use.write() to write the servo position in loop(). As an example:

#include <Servo.h>


function setup() { myServo.attach(9); // Connect servo signal pin 9

void loop() { myServo.write(0); delay(1000); wait 1 second myServo.write(90); delay(1000); myServo.write(180); delay(1000); }

The servo rotates to 0, 90, and 180 degrees, halting for 1 second each time.

Arduino projects are easy to move with servos. Spin those servos and have fun! Any additional Arduino servo questions? Let me know.

Wiring Servos to Arduino Servos provide movement and rotation in Arduino projects. Connect your servo to Arduino to spin it. This is a simple process, but there are some things to remember.

Servos need an external power supply, so attach them to the Arduino’s 5V pin. Connect 5V to the positive red wire. Connect the negative black or brown wire to ground.

The Signal Wire

The yellow or orange signal wire is the last. This wire controls the servo and must be attached to an Arduino digital pin. Pin 9 or 10 can generate servo PWM signals, therefore use them.

Adding a Capacitor Servos can use significant power, which can cause issues for your Arduino. Adding a capacitor between the servo’s power and ground connections will level down power draw. Use a capacitor between 1000-2200μF for optimal results. Connect the capacitor’s positive and negative ends to the power pin and ground, respectively.

The Code

To operate your servo, include the Servo library and write basic code. Connect the servo to your pin in setup(). Rotate the servo by writing an angle between 0 and 180 degrees in loop(). As an example:

#include <Servo.h>

Create servo object to control servo.

In void setup(), attach the servo on pin 9 to the servo object using myServo.attach(9).

void loop() { myServo.write(0); // rotates to 0 degrees delay(1000); // waits for a second myServo.write(90); // rotates to 90 degrees delay(1000); // rotates to 180 degrees delay(1000); } }

Your servo should revolve smoothly after wiring it and uploading this code. Have more questions? Let me know!

Coding Servo Control

Spin your servo with code after connecting it! Arduino servo control is simple. The Servo library simplifies rotation angle setting.

To setup the Servo object, first create it. Add: at the top of your code

Include <Servo.h> Servo myServo;

This includes the Servo library and creates myServo.

Attaching Servo
Attach the Servo object to a pin in setup. As an example:

setup() { myServo.attach(9); // Connects servo to pin 9

The Servo library needs to know which pin is linked to your servo to create pulses to control it.

Rotating Servo

In your main loop, use write() to set servo angle. To spin a servo 90 degrees, use:

void loop() { myServo.write(90); // Configure servo angle to 90 degrees

Angle ranges from 0 to 180. You may rotate the servo using:

void loop() { myServo.write(0);  // rotate to 0 degrees delay(1000);  // wait for a second myServo.write(180);  // rotate to 180 degrees delay(1000);  // wait for a second

This rotates the servo every second. Controlling the delay sets the servo speed.

Enjoy spinning your servo and making Arduino-powered projects! If you have further code-controlled servo questions, let me know.

Fun Servo Projects for Beginners

After learning to operate servos with your Arduino, try some interesting projects! Start with these simple but fun servo-based constructions.

Panning Camera Mount

Who dislikes a motion-controlled camera? Programming your Arduino to swivel the camera left and right requires a servo and camera mount or tripod head. You’ll quickly master dynamic panning and action sequences. Add a second servo to tilt up and down for extra credit.

Animated Eyes

Make a Halloween décor come alive with moving eyes. Open, close, and glance left and right with prop eyeball servos. Make your creature stare, blink, and glance around with a succession of eye movements and speeds. This creepy-cute effect will delight kids and adults.


Make a robot gripper with two or more servos and craft materials. Make the servos’ arms open and close like fingers. Control the gripper with your Arduino to grab and manipulate items. Kids interested in robotics and engineering will enjoy this project.

Turret Laser Pointer

Being mischievous? Make a servo-controlled laser pointer turret. Mount two servos on a base to regulate laser horizontal and vertical angle. Set the Arduino to sweep the laser up, down, or in a figure-8 pattern. Be careful not to point the laser at people or animals! Adult supervision is recommended for this project for ages 14 and older.

The possibilities for servo-based designs are infinite. These are some ideas to spark your creativity. Arduino servo projects should be fun and imaginative! Any questions? Let me know.

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